What Is Secondary Bone Cancer
Secondary bone cancer is when a cancer that started somewhere else in the body has spread to the bones.
Where a cancer starts is called the primary cancer. If some cancer cells break away from the primary cancer they can move through the bloodstream or lymphatic system to another part of the body, where they can form a new tumour. This is called a secondary cancer. Secondary cancers are also called metastases .
The secondary cancer is made of the same type of cells as the primary cancer.
So, if your cancer started in your lung and has spread to your bones, the areas of cancer in the bone are made up of lung cancer cells.
This is different from having a cancer that first started in the bone . In that case, the cancer is made up of bone cells that have become cancerous. This is important because the primary cancer tells your doctor which type of treatment you need.
This video is about secondary cancer, it lasts for 2 minutes and 42 seconds.
Symptoms And Diagnosis Of Bone Metastasis
A sudden, noticeable new pain is the most common symptom of breast cancer that has spread to the bone. The pain may come and go at first but can become constant over time. It can be hard to tell the difference between bone metastasis pain and arthritis pain or exercise strain. If the pain feels just as bad or even worse when you rest or lie down, it can be a sign of a problem. Its a good idea to see your doctor right away if it is bone metastasis, prompt treatment can prevent a fracture down the road.
Complications of bone metastasis are called skeletal-related events and can include the following:
What Does Bone Cancer In The Hip Feel Like
Bone cancers are malignant tumors that arise in the bone due to the abnormal growth of bone cells in the body. The most common symptom of bone cancer in the hip is hip pain, which can be severe enough to disrupt sleep and daily activities. The bones involved can weaken, resulting in fractures caused by trivial trauma. Sometimes, swelling or a mass may be felt in the hip in absence of any history of trauma to the body pain.
Cancers that originate in the hip bones are primary bone cancers. In general, the primary bone tumors of the hip are rare. Chondrosarcoma is the most common primary tumor of the bone. Most tumors seen in the hip bone are secondary tumors. This means cancer from other body parts has spread to the bones.
A type of cancer can also originate in the spongy part of the hip bone . These are blood cancers , which manifest as throbbing hip pains, hip fractures, fevers, night chills, kidney failure, bleeding, etc. Other cancers that may develop in the hip include osteosarcoma, chondrosarcoma, Ewing sarcoma and soft tissue sarcomas.
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Is There A Connection Between Osteoporosis And Bone Cancer
Yes. While osteoporosis isnt a precursor for bone cancer, many people with bone cancer develop osteoporosis as a result.
A note from Cleveland Clinic
Bone cancer is rare. Being diagnosed with the condition can bring fear, frustration and uncertainty. When detected and treated early, bone cancer can be treated successfully. Talk to your healthcare provider about your treatment options. You may also want to consider joining a support group. Talking with people who are going through the same thing can be beneficial for your mental, emotional and spiritual health.
Last reviewed by a Cleveland Clinic medical professional on 11/08/2021.
What Is Bone Cancer
Bone cancer is the term for several different cancers that develop in the bones. When cancer cells grow in a bone, it can harm normal bone tissue. The type of cell and tissue where cancer begins determines the type of bone cancer.
Cancers that form in the bone itself are called primary bone cancers. Many tumors that begin in organs or other parts of the body can spread to the bones, as well as other body parts. These growths are called secondary or metastatic bone cancers. Breast, prostate and lung tumors most commonly metastasize to the bones.
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What Are The Types Of Bone Cancer
The two main types of bone cancers are:
Surgical Treatment Of Bone Tumor Metastasis
If bone cancer has spread to other parts of the body, these tumors need to be removed to have a chance at curing the cancer.
When bone cancer spreads, it most often goes to the lungs. If surgery can be done to remove these metastases, it must be planned very carefully. Before the operation, the surgeon will consider the number of tumors, where they are , their size, and the persons overall health.
Imaging tests such as a chest CT scan might not show all of the tumors, so the surgeon will have a treatment plan ready in case more tumors are found during the operation.
Some bone cancers might spread to other bones or to organs like the kidneys, liver, or brain. Whether these tumors can be removed with surgery depends on their size, location, and other factors.
Unfortunately, not all cancers that have spread can be removed with surgery. Some metastases might be too big or too close to important structures to be removed safely. People whose overall health isnt good might not be able to withstand the stress of anesthesia and surgery to remove the metastases. If this is the case, other treatments might be offered to try to control these tumors for as long as possible.
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Is Bone Cancer Usually Fatal
Not usually. Though some people will die of bone cancer, many others will make a full recovery. The five-year relative survival rate for bone cancer is 66.8%. This means that 66.8% of people with bone cancer are still alive five years after their diagnosis. Keep in mind that survival rates are only estimates based on people whove had bone cancer in the past. They cant predict how long you will live or what to expect in your unique situation. To learn more about bone cancer survival rates, talk to your healthcare provider.
Is My Hip Pain Cancer
Pain in your hip may be scary, but cancer is only one reason you may feel this pain. Common reasons for sharp, burning, or aching pain can be conditions like arthritis and bursitis, injuries, or severe causes like joint infections or fractures. Knowing the signs of hip cancer can help you determine when to see your healthcare provider and what to expect.
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Survival For Different Types Of Primary Bone Cancer
The statistics below are for bone cancers diagnosed in England between 1985 and 2004. They come from the National Cancer Intelligence Network. This is the most recent data we have. As these statistics are over 15 years old, survival is likely to have improved in line with the trend for all cancers combined in England.
We have information about:
Please remember that these statistics are for everybody diagnosed with each type of cancer. The figures do not take into account other factors that affect your survival, such as the stage and grade of your cancer, your age, where the cancer is, or how well chemotherapy works. Your doctor can tell you more about your own outlook.
Rare Types Of Bone Cancers
These are a few rare forms of bone cancer that occur majorly in adults:
- Fibrosarcoma occurs in the hips and knees, mostly in older patient following radiation therapy
- Giant cell tumors can begin in the knees affecting young adults in most cases
- Adamantinoma occurs in the shin bone and accounts for less than 1% of bone sarcomas
- Chordoma is a rare form of cancer occurring in the base of the spine and skull. It affects roughly 300 people each year in the United States.
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Primary Bone Tumors That Are Not Cancer
Some tumors that start in the bones are benign . Benign tumors do not spread to other parts of the body and are not usually life threatening. When they need to be treated they often can be cured with surgery. Types of benign bone tumors include:
- Osteoid osteoma
Benign giant cell tumors of bone can also be included here.
Benign bone tumors won’t be discussed further here.
Giant Cell Tumor Of Bone
This type of primary bone tumor can be either benign or malignant. The benign form is more common. These tumors are most common in people in their 20s and 30s.
Giant cell bone tumors typically affect the legs or arms. They dont often spread to distant parts of the body, but after surgery they can come back in the place where they started. With each recurrence, the tumor becomes a bit more likely to spread to other parts of the body . Rarely, a malignant giant cell bone tumor spreads to other parts of the body without first recurring locally.
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Surgery For Bone Tumors In Other Parts Of The Body
Tumors in the pelvic bones can often be hard to remove completely with surgery. Some types of tumors can be treated with chemotherapy first to help shrink the cancer and make the operation easier. Pelvic bones can sometimes be reconstructed after surgery, but in some cases pelvic bones and the leg they are attached to might need to be removed.
For tumors in the lower jaw bone, the entire lower half of the jaw may be removed and later replaced with bone from other parts of the body. If the surgeon cant remove all of the tumor, radiation therapy may be used as well.
For tumors in areas like the spine or the skull, it might not be possible to remove all of the tumor safely. Cancers in these bones could require a combination of treatments such as curettage , cryosurgery, and radiation.
Joint fusion : Sometimes, after the removal of a tumor that involves a joint , it might not be possible to reconstruct the joint. In this case, surgery might be done to fuse the two bones together. This is most often used for tumors in the spine, but it might also be used in other parts of the body, such as a shoulder or hip. While it can help stabilize the joint, it results in loss of motion, which the person will have to learn to adjust to.
Diagnosing The Primary Cancer
Secondary bone cancer can occasionally be found before the primary cancer is diagnosed.
If this happens your doctor will want to know where the primary cancer is. They may arrange for you to have tests to find this out. Your doctor will be able to tell you more about these tests.
Waiting for test results can be a difficult time, we have more information that can help.
We have more detailed information about how secondary bone cancer is treated.
Managing the symptoms of secondary bone cancer is usually an important part of your treatment.
To relieve symptoms, you may be offered radiotherapy, painkillers or other medication. Treatments for the primary cancer may also treat the secondary cancer and help symptoms. You may be offered 1 or a combination of:
Other treatments may occasionally be used for secondary bone cancer.
Treatment for secondary bone cancer may be offered as part of a clinical trial.
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As cancer cells damage the bones, calcium from the bones is released into the blood. This can lead to problems caused by high blood calcium levels. The medical word for high calcium levels is hypercalcemia. Early symptoms of having too much calcium in the blood include: Constipation Passing urine very often Feeling sluggish or sleepy.
Javier Larrea/age fotostock/Getty Images The National Cancer Institute explains that pain and swelling in the hip are common symptoms of bone cancer. Bone cancer starts in. Lumps, swellings, fractures, joint tenderness and pain are some common symptoms of bone cancer in ankle and foot. It is important that all these symptoms are identified at an early stage so, to.
Osteosarcoma is the most common malignant bone tumor among children, adolescents and young adults, but it is still a rare disorder. This bonecancer affects approximately 400 children younger than age 20 every year in the United States. Osteosarcoma occurs most often in children and young adults between the ages of 10 and 20 and. Feeling full too quickly or difficulty eating, bloating, and abdominal or back pain are common for ovarian cancer. Pelvic pain or pressure is common for ovarian and uterine cancers. More frequent or urgent need to urinate and/or constipation are common for ovarian and vaginal cancers.
What Causes This Type Of Tumor
The reason why a particular pet may develop this, or any tumor or cancer, is not straightforward. Very few tumors and cancers have a single known cause. Most seem to be caused by a complex mix of risk factors, some environmental and some genetic or hereditary.
“Osteosarcomas appear to affect large breed dogs more commonly than the small breeds.”
Osteosarcomas appear to affect large breed dogs more commonly than the small breeds. Reported predisposed breeds include Boxer Dogs, Doberman Pinschers, Golden Retrievers, German Shepherd Dogs, Great Danes, Great Pyrenees, Greyhounds, Irish Setters, Irish Wolfhounds, Labrador Retrievers, Rottweilers, Saint Bernards, and Weimaraners.
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What Causes Bone Cancer
Experts are not certain what causes bone cancer, but they have found links between bone cancer and other factors. The most important factor is being exposed to radiation or drugs during treatment for other cancers. Some bone cancers occur due to conditions that are passed down in families , although this is not usually the case.
Chemotherapy For Ewing Sarcoma
For Ewing sarcoma, the drugs most often used first are vincristine, ifosfamide, doxorubicin and etoposide. Giving these drugs together is called VIDE. Youll usually have 6 cycles of VIDE.
After your chemotherapy you may have surgery, or, if the tumour cant be removed with an operation, youll have radiotherapy. Some people have both surgery and radiotherapy. The team looking after you will decide on the best combination for you.
If you have surgery, youll have more chemotherapy afterwards to help stop the tumour coming back or spreading to other parts of the body.
At the moment, there is a clinical trial called Euro-Ewing 2012 that is comparing different combinations of chemotherapy treatments before and after surgery for people with Ewing sarcomas. You can talk to your specialist doctor about whether you could take part in this trial.
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How Is Bone Cancer Treated
Bone cancer treatment depends on the type of cancer, whether it has spread and if so, where. People with bone cancer often work with a team of healthcare providers to treat the condition. This group includes doctors who specialize in cancer and doctors who specialize in bones and joints .
Bone cancer treatment typically involves a combination of approaches. The type and duration of these treatments vary depending on several factors, including the type of bone cancer, the size of the tumor and whether it has spread to other parts of the body. The treatments most commonly used include:
- Surgery: Your surgeon removes the tumor and some healthy tissue around it. They can also repair or rebuild affected bones with real or artificial bone grafts. Sometimes, an entire limb must be removed to treat cancer. In this case, an artificial limb can be used. Sometimes repeat surgery is needed if all of the cancer cells were not removed the first time around.
- Radiation therapy: This treatment shrinks the tumors with high doses of X-rays. Healthcare providers often use radiation before surgery to shrink the tumor so less tissue has to be removed.
- Chemotherapy: This type of treatment kills cancer cells throughout the body with medicine. People usually receive this medicine by swallowing a pill or having it injected into a vein. Your provider can use chemotherapy to treat primary bone cancers or bone cancers that have spread.
What Are The Survival Rates For Secondary Bone Cancer
Most people worry about their outlook when they have a secondary cancer. Your individual outlook depends on many factors including whether the cancer has spread to more than one part of your body, how quickly it is growing, and how it responds to treatment. It is usually difficult to predict and this uncertainty can be hard to deal with.
It is usually difficult to predict and this uncertainty can be hard to deal with. Speak to your doctor who can give you more information about your outlook.
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How Are Bone Metastases Diagnosed
If you have signs of bone metastasis, tests can be done to find the cause. In some cases, bone metastasis may be found before the symptoms start. X-rays, bone scans, and MRIs, among other tests, are used to diagnose bone metastases.
If you are diagnosed with bone mets, your team will talk to you about possible treatment and management.