The Five Grades Of Hip Arthritis
The Kellgren-Lawrence scale is an internationally accepted scale for grading hip arthritis x-rays.
- Grade 0 – normal amount of joint space
- Grade 1 : doubtful joint space narrowing and possible
- Grade 2 : bone spurs present and possible joint space narrowing
- Grade 3 : multiple bone spurs, definite narrowing of joint space and possible bone changes
- Grade 4 : large bone spurs, marked joint space narrowing, changes to bone ends underneath the cartilage
Etiology And Risk Factors
Although osteoarthritis is especially common in older adults, its pathology of asymmetric joint cartilage loss, subchondral sclerosis , marginal osteophytes and subchondral cysts is the same in younger and older adults.1 Primary osteoarthritis is the most common form and is usually seen in weight-bearing joints that have undergone abnormal stresses .1316 The precise etiology of osteoarthritis is unknown, but biochemical and biomechanical factors are likely to be important in the etiology and pathogenesis.1 Biomechanical factors associated with osteoarthritis include obesity, muscle weakness and neurologic dysfunction. In primary osteoarthritis, the common sites of involvement include the hands, hips, knees and feet13,17. Secondary osteoarthritis is a complication of other arthropathies or secondary to trauma. Gout, rheumatoid arthritis and calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease are correlated with the onset of secondary osteoarthritis.
Training The Deep Learning Model
The DL model, ResNet18, was trained for assessing the presence or absence of rHOA. Different types of CNNs such as VGG , ResNet , and DenseNet have previously been used in OA-related studies. In this study, ResNet18 was chosen after considering the graphics processing unit capacity and time vs predictive accuracy when compared to other models. ResNet18 has a network architecture based on the ResNet CNNs and takes input data of size ) details on the network architecture can be found in the original publication by He K et al. .
Five models were trained to investigate the performance of the different training data to detect rHOA. Model-1 was trained on the X-ray images from the CHECK cohort while Model-2 was trained on the same X-ray images that were downsampled to sizes of 100 pixels×100 pixels to match the ROI sizes of the CT-AP images. Model-3 was trained with a combination of the CT-AP images and the X-ray images used in Model-1, while Model-4 was trained using the CT-AP images and the downsampled X-ray images from Model-2. Model-5 was trained using the CT-AP images only.
Network training was done on a 64-bit Windows 10 Enterprise 32 GB RAM CPU computer with a 16 GB integrated single GPU .
Also Check: Hip Labral Tear Physical Therapy
Tips While Performing Exercises For Hip Osteoarthritis
There are a few things you need to keep in mind before, during and even after performing exercises when you have hip osteoarthritis. Some helpful tips to ensure you do not injure yourself include:
- Pay attention to your body and if a move doesnt feel right, do not push yourself to complete it use modifications if necessary.
- Use gentle, low-impact exercises.
- If pain is increasing, stop and rest if pain continues after youre finished, then you have overexerted yourself.
- Use over-the-counter anti-inflammatory medication to alleviate pain.
- Get a good nights rest not sleeping well can increase pain.
- Maintain a healthy weight being overweight adds extra stress to joints.
- Use assistive devices to help alleviate pain.
- Join a club or work with a physiotherapist who will help you improve your flexibility and fitness.
Mohan Garikiparithi got his degree in medicine from Osmania University . He practiced clinical medicine for over a decade before he shifted his focus to the field of health communications. During his active practice he served as the head of the Dept. of Microbiology in a diagnostic centre in India. On a three-year communications program in Germany, Mohan developed a keen interest in German Medicine , and other alternative systems of medicine. He now advocates treating different medical conditions without the use of traditional drugs. An ardent squash player, Mohan believes in the importance of fitness and wellness.
Mobility / Flexibility Exercises For Hip Arthritis
The goal of these these hip arthritis exercises is to maximize the space available in the hip joint.
With today’s technology, it’s not currently possible to regenerate cartilage within the hip joint, but you can do things to make the most of the joint space that you DO have available.
One great example of a mobility exercise is pulling your knee towards your chest either while sitting or laying down.
The goal of this exercise is to stretch the back part of the hip.
If you feel a pain or pinching in the front of the hip or groin when doing this, it’s OK to go just up to the point of pain, but don’t try to push past it.
This is NOT a no pain, no gain type of stretch.
If you’re getting pinching in the groin when doing this exercise, you’ve likely reached the end range of the hip joint, and you’re just going to jam the ball and socket together further if you try to push it.
It won’t feel good, and it won’t help your problem. If anything, it will just make you more sore.
Read Also: Getting Into Bed After Hip Replacement
Can You Tell If You Have Arthritis From An X
The image above is the X-Ray image of a patient that is diagnosed with osteoarthritis of the hand. Many things can be observed by looking at this image. In the case of osteoarthritis on the hand, the base of the thumb and joints near to the fingertips are the most commonly affected joints.
The image from the X-Ray clearly found these things:
- Joint Sclerosis
- Crooked Fingers
How Severe Are My Hip Arthritis X
Typically when you go to your doctor for hip pain, the first thing they’ll do is take hip x-rays.
And if you’re over the age of 50 and you have x-rays of your hips, chances are pretty good that you’ll find a hip with arthritis.
One study by the American College of Rheumatology showed that about 20% of people over the age of 50 have a hip with arthritis on their x-rays, but only about 20% of those people have symptomatic hip arthritis.
You May Like: Growing Up Hip Hop: New York
Influence Of Xray Beam Centring
On radiographs performed with the Xray beam centred on the umbilicus, mean JSW was 3.48 mm. JSW increased on average by 10.26% in this view compared with the standardized pelvic radiographs. The two views differed significantly in JSW measurements . The difference in JSW between these views was 0.31mm on average but varied from 1.60mm to +0.60mm. Absolute differences between the two views in JSW measurements 0.50mm were observed in 10 of 39 cases. No specific relationship existed between the difference and the mean .
How Is Hip Arthritis Diagnosed
Your doctor may use the following diagnostic tools to determine if you have hip arthritis:
- Medical history and physical examination
- Blood tests for genetic markers and/or RA antibodies
- X-rays to determine cartilage loss
You cant see cartilage on X-ray, but you can see the space between the bones of the hip joint. If its narrowing, this could mean that cartilage has been lost. X-rays also show bone spurs and cysts, which develop due to osteoarthritis. MRI of the hip is usually not needed to diagnose arthritis.
Recommended Reading: Lower Back Pain Above Hip
Causes And Symptoms Of Osteoarthritis Of The Hip Joint
Osteoarthritis is inflammation and swelling in a joint that leads to pain. Inflammation and injury in a joint can lead to the breakdown of cartilage, which is located at the end of bones between the joints. Cartilage works as a shock absorber so that bones dont rub together and cause damage. When cartilage does become damaged and wears away, bones can touch and rub together, which not only damages the bones, but leads to a reduction in mobility and more pain.
The hip has a ball and socket joint that allows for a wide range of movement. Because it is a joint it can become susceptible to osteoarthritis.
Although there is no specific cause for hip osteoarthritis, factors that can increase a persons risk to develop it include:
- Improper formation of hip joint at birth
Symptoms of hip osteoarthritis include:
- Pain in the groin region that moves to the buttocks or knee
- Pain that flares up during activity
- Stiffness in the hip joint that makes it difficult to walk
- Locking or sticking of the joint, grinding of the joint
- Increased pain when it is rainy
Strengthening Exercises For Hip Arthritis
One common cause of hip arthritis pain is weak gluteal muscles.
Your glute muscles help you to balance your body over one leg while walking so that you don’t tip over to the side.
Therefore, balancing on one leg is one of the best strengthening exercises for hip arthritis.
It’s OK to hold on for balance when standing on one leg.
However, if you still have too much pain or difficulty standing on one leg, or you just can’t figure out how to get your glute muscles turn on, the clamshell exercise is another great exercise to strengthen your glute muscles.
However, 95% of people do the clamshell exercise WRONG!
Recommended Reading: Can Fibroids Cause Pain In Your Hip
Different Symptoms Of Arthritis In Hip X
Even though there are five different types of arthritis they all have the same symptoms and may have similar characteristics on hip x-ray . Some of these symptoms are as follows,
- Walking with a limp
- Pain that worsens with strenuous activity
- Pain that is much more intense in the morning and subsides till the evening
- Pain in the hip and other adjacent area
Association Of Hip Pain With Radiographic Evidence Of Hip Osteoarthritis: Diagnostic Test Study
- Accepted 24 October 2015
Recommended Reading: Pain On The Right Hip
What Happens After Finishing All The Tests
After finishing all the tests, then follow-up with orthopedist will be there. The orthopedist will go through the images obtained via X-ray along with the results of other tests. The orthopedist will get all the information, which is required by him/her to continue the process of treatment.
The orthopedist will also find out the severity of osteoarthritis and will provide you with detailed information about your condition. There could be some other conditions that could be found out by the orthopedist, such as cartilage tear and muscle strain after checking out the images that are obtained via x-ray.
After all the lengthy process of diagnosis, the orthopedist will provide an appropriate treatment plan, according to the condition of the patient. There are various methods of treatment that orthopedist may suggest to you. They can suggest physical therapy, medications, or surgery.
*All individuals are unique. Your results can and will vary.
In some other cases, the condition can be managed with a change in a lifestyle, weight management, ice therapy, and others.
What Causes Osteoarthritis
The most common form of arthritis, osteoarthritis, is associated with injuries, wear-and-tear processes, and genetics. An arthritis joint will demonstrate the narrow bone spaces due to various reasons. The cartilage thins, the formation of cysts within bones, bones spurs seen on the edges, deformity of joints are some of the reasons, which leads to crooked joints.
You can get rid of joint pain instantly by browsing through the best joint supplement reviews on the market. Read them carefully to arrive at the decision of buying the best product on the market.
Don’t Miss: Pain Relief For Hip Arthritis Uk
Surgery For Hip Arthritis
The progression of hip arthritis and effectiveness of various nonsurgical treatments varies. If nonsurgical options dont provide the desired pain relief and your quality of life suffers, it may be time to consider surgical options, such as:
- Hip replacement surgery, or hip arthroplasty, is a procedure to replace one or both ends of a damaged hip joint with artificial implants.
- Hip fusion is a procedure to fuse the bones of the hip joint together. It used to be the standard surgical treatment for hip arthritis before replacement surgeries became available, but is now a last-resort treatment as it severely impacts mobility.
Limitations Of This Study
The largest methodological problem in studying osteoarthritis related pain may be the lack of a validated gold standard for ascertaining that the hip pain is due to osteoarthritis.19 Unlike the knee or the ankle, the hip joint has numerous surrounding and adjacent structures that could cause pain in the hip area, such as pelvic disease or referred pain to the hip region. Birrell19 studied the construct validity of different approaches to ascertaining hip pain, which included verbal description or visual aid, or both. The combination of both the questionnaires and shaded hip areas on a manikin were superior for association with hip pain indicators than either questionnaires only or visual aid only.19 Our studies combined questionnaires with visual aids to ascertain hip pain. However, we did not assess the severity of hip pain or treatment response to hip osteoarthritis .
The participants recruited for the Osteoarthritis Initiative had or were at risk for knee osteoarthritis, potentially increasing the risk of hip osteoarthritis. Because the positive predictive value and negative predictive value depend on prevalence of the disease, both values in the Osteoarthritis Initiative may be biased. However, the Framingham Osteoarthritis Study was community based and therefore the values are not likely to be biased.
Read Also: Hip Gives Out Suddenly With Sharp Pain
What Is Hip Arthritis
Hip arthritis is deterioration of the cartilage of the hip joint. The hip is a ball-and-socket joint with the ball at the top of the thighbone . The ball is separated from the socket by cartilage. The cartilage acts as a slippery coating between the ball and the socket that allows the ball to glide and rotate smoothly when the leg moves. The labrum, a strong cartilage that lines the outer rim of the socket, provides stability.
When cartilage in the hip is damaged, it becomes rough. Thinning of cartilage narrows the space between the bones. In advanced cases, bone rubs on bone, and any movement can cause pain and stiffness. When there is friction at any point between bones, it can also lead to bone spurs bone growths on the edges of a bone that change its shape.
Treatment Options For Osteoarthritis Of The Hip
Treatment options for hip osteoarthritis include non-surgical and surgical tactics. Non-surgical treatment options include:
- Lifestyle modifications: Minimize activity that aggravates the joint, switch to lower impact exercises and lose weight.
- Physical therapy: PT can help increase range of motion.
- Assistive devices: Using a cane or crutches can help alleviate pressure on the joint.
- Medication: Over-the-counter or prescription medications can help alleviate pain.
Surgical treatments for hip osteoarthritis include:
- Osteotomy: The head of the thighbone or socket is cut to help realign it and alleviate pressure.
- Hip resurfacing: Damaged bone and cartilage is removed and replaced with a metal shell.
- Total hip replacement: The head and the femur are removed and replaced with metal, plastic or ceramic and act as a new hip.
A study has also found that exercise can benefit and help treat hip osteoarthritis. The researchers treated patients over the course of 12 weeks with an exercise program. The exercises were targeted for muscle strengthening, coordination training and to improve mobility.
After the exercise sessions ended, patients reported less pain and more mobility in their joints.
Also Check: How Soon Can I Drive After Hip Replacement
Limitations Of Standard Radiography
Typically, radiological signs are present in the early clinical manifestations of osteoarthritis, but X-rays may be normal or subnormal in the early stages of the disease due to the slow development of radiographic signs. The clinician can then make use of modern imaging techniques, which can provide structural and lesional information and enable appropriate early treatment.
Early diagnosis of osteoarthritis is interesting because of the possibilities of preventive surgery and the hopes that future structure-modulating drugs may bring.
Nonsurgical Treatments For Hip Arthritis
- Activity modifications may help reduce painful flare-ups. Avoid activities that aggravate hip arthritis, such as running, jumping and other high-impact exercises.
- Lifestyle modifications, such as weight loss, can help reduce stress on the hip joint.
- Physical therapy exercises can help improve strength in the hip. Engaging in low-impact exercises and activities, such as swimming and cycling, and remaining physically active are key to managing hip arthritis symptoms.
- Heating pads can help soothe inflammation in the hip.
- Medications and injections, such as corticosteroid injections, hyaluronic acid injections, platelet-rich plasma injections, vitamin and mineral supplements, and immunosuppressive or biologic medicines can help control pain and inflammation. Which medications will work best depends on the type of arthritis.
- Walking aids such as a cane or walker provide support when walking.
Recommended Reading: Back Pain Causing Hip Pain